Pricing Models Used For Software Project Cost Estimation

Have you ever wondered how software projects are priced?

Pricing a software project is a complex process and pricing cost models are used to determine the cost. There are several models used to come up with an estimate of the cost of a software project, including COCOMO, FPA, and fixed-price models.


COCOMO (Constructive Cost Model) is a model used to estimate the cost and effort required to develop software.

It is based on the idea that it is easier to estimate the effort required for a project when the project is divided into smaller components.

The model uses a number of parameters to calculate the effort required for the project, such as the number of software engineers, the complexity of the software, and the development environment.

The model is used to estimate the total cost of a project, including the development cost, maintenance cost, and training costs.

Function Point Analysis (FPA):

Function Point Analysis (FPA) is a software measurement technique used to estimate the size and complexity of a software application.

It is based on the concept of counting the number of “function points” in the application, which are based on the number of user inputs, outputs, inquiries, and files used in the application.

Function Point Analysis is used to measure the amount of effort required to develop an application, and it can also be used to estimate the cost of development and maintenance.

FPA is a popular method among software engineers and organizations who need to accurately estimate the cost and complexity of software development projects.

Parametric Cost Estimation (PCE):

Parametric cost estimation (PCE) is a method of estimating the cost of a project by using a statistical relationship between cost and other project parameters, such as size and complexity.

This approach uses established relationships between cost and other parameters to calculate the cost of similar projects and extrapolate the cost of the project being estimated.

PCE is often used for estimating the cost of construction projects, IT projects, and other complex projects.

It is a useful tool for project managers because it can provide an accurate estimate of cost in a relatively short time frame.

Expert Judgement Cost Estimation (EJCE)

Expert Judgement Cost Estimation (EJCE) is a method of estimating the cost of a project based on the judgmentally and experience of a panel of experts.

This method involves the gathering of information from a panel of experts about the project and then using the collective knowledge of the experts to make a cost estimate.

The experts can provide information on the complexity of the project, the difficulty of the tasks, the availability of resources, and the estimated duration of the project.

This information can then be used to calculate the cost of the project.

The EJCE method is often used in software development and other complex projects, where accurate estimates are difficult to obtain.

Earned Value Management (EVM)

Earned Value Management (EVM) is a project management technique used to measure and track progress on a project.

It is used to help project managers determine if their projects are running on schedule and within budget.

It also helps them identify variances in the project schedule and budget and make corrections as necessary to ensure the project is completed on time and within budget.

EVM utilizes three primary metrics—planned value, earned value, and actual cost—to measure project performance.

These metrics are then used to calculate a variety of other performance measurements such as cost and schedule variance, cost performance index, and schedule performance index.

Time & Material (T&M)

Time and materials (T&M) pricing is a project cost model where the buyer pays for the actual time and materials used by the seller to complete a project.

This model is ideal for projects that are too complex to estimate an exact cost, or for projects with unpredictable requirements.

The seller will provide an estimate for the number of hours and materials needed, and the buyer agrees to pay for the actual number of hours and materials used.

This model allows the buyer more control over their budget, as they can control the scope of the project and adjust the estimated cost accordingly.

Additionally, the buyer can monitor the progress of the project and adjust the scope and cost if necessary.

Fixed Price (FP)

FP project cost estimate software is designed to help organizations estimate the cost of fixed-price projects.

The software allows users to create accurate estimates of the cost of projects quickly and easily.

By entering the project’s scope, timeline, and resources, users can quickly generate an accurate estimate of the total cost of the project.

The software also provides additional features such as the ability to compare different estimates and create custom reports.

Additionally, the software can be integrated with other project management software to provide a comprehensive view of the project’s budget.

Resource-Based Pricing (RBP)

Resource-Based Pricing (RBP) is a pricing strategy that considers the cost of the resources used to produce goods and services when calculating the price of those goods and services.

The goal of this type of pricing is to ensure that the cost of production is included in the pricing structure, so that businesses can maintain a profitable margin.

This strategy can be used to ensure that businesses are able to cover the costs associated with providing goods and services, such as labor and materials, without sacrificing their profit margins.

Additionally, RBP can be used to ensure that businesses are able to compete with their competitors, as the price of their goods and services can be adjusted to meet market demands.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) is a method of assigning costs to products, services, and customers that is based on the activities that are required to produce them.

This method of costing assigns costs to activities that are related to producing a product or service, rather than assigning costs based on arbitrary assumptions.

By assigning costs based on their activities, ABC allows for more accurate cost allocations, which can lead to improved cost management and decision-making.

ABC also allows for better understanding of the true cost of a product or service, which can help in pricing decisions.

Risk-Adjusted Cost Estimation (RACE)

Risk-Adjusted Cost Estimation (RACE) is a process used to estimate the cost of a project while taking into account potential risks that may affect the project’s timeline, budget, and outcome.

It is important to consider potential risks when planning a project as they can have a significant impact on the cost and successful completion of the project.

The process begins with a risk assessment which identifies all potential risks and their potential impacts.

This information is then used to create a Risk-Adjusted Cost Estimate which takes into account the identified risks and their potential impact on the project’s timeline, budget, and outcome.

This estimate can then be used to make informed decisions about how to allocate resources and budget for the project.

Target Costing (TC)

Target costing is a cost management technique used to estimate the cost of a project that meets a specific target price and quality.

It involves setting a target cost based on the customer’s desired price and working backward to design a product that meets the specified target cost.

The target cost is typically set before any design work has begun, and the design team works to develop the product and features that will meet the target cost.

The process involves analyzing the customer’s desired features and determining the cost of each component within the product.

The design team works to identify areas where costs can be reduced without sacrificing the customer’s desired features.

This cost reduction is then used to offset cost increases in other areas of the product.

Target costing can be used as a tool to ensure that the final cost of the project is within the desired range.